#:g1: DO&

Posted 2011-07-17 07:16:00 GMT


Date: Wednesday, 21 April 1982, 20:15-EST
From: levitt at MIT-AI, zvona at MIT-AI
Sender: Zvona at MIT-AI
Subject: LMLIB;DO&
To: info-lispm at MIT-AI

DO& is an interation macro with many of the features of LOOP and a LISPy syntax similar to DO*. User-definable keywords allow common iterative constructs -- like CDRing down a list, CONSing a new list, or counting -- to be implemented more simply and readably. Automatic generation of end tests makes the DO/DO* end-test form unnecessary.

The programs below, equivalent to common LISP functions, give a feel for DO& style:

(defun length (list) (do& ((i &count0) (l &pop list &return i))))

(defun reverse (list) (do& ((elt &pop list &return accum) (accum &push elt))))

(defun listarray (array) (do& ((elt &aref array &return (nreverse list)) (list &push elt))))

(defun remq (item list) (do& ((a &pop list &return (nreverse out)) (out &push a &only-if (neq a item)))))

DO& allows most relevant information to appear within the variable specifications, improving program clarity, and doing away with the need for formulaic and complex bodies.

DO& has evolved over more than two years and reimplemented many times. The rough corners have been worn off, and we now believe the current implementation is clean enough for general release.

DO& is documented in detail in LMLIB;DO&DOC. Bugs to BUG-DO&@AI; users may wish to add themselves to INFO-DO&.

Here is a partial comparison of features of DO& and LOOP. It is perhaps not perfectly impartial. Also, many of the features of LOOP which DO& lacks could be added if there were demand for them.

DO& syntax is a natural extension of DO*. LOOP is a non-LISPy sublanguage. Partly as a consequence, it is easier to determine the scope of DO& keywords than that of LOOP keywords. Since keywords all begin with ``&'' it is easy to separate them from non-keywords. The simplicity of DO& syntax makes it trivial to learn and often immediately understandably by non-users. Also it indents better than LOOP in Zmacs.

LOOP and DO& have roughly comparable numbers predefined iteration keywords. The sets are not identical; LOOP has a package mapping keyword, and DO& has one for mapping over plists. In any case, both make it relatively easy to define your own keywords, so exactly which keywords are defined by default is not very important.

LOOP supports parallel binding; DO& does not. Of course you can always use an extra variable to get the same effect.

DO& guarantees that variables have sensible values at all times; LOOP does not. In particular, in a LOOP epilogue, the values of iteration variables may be undefined, whereas in a DO& &RETURN form, they are always defined and take on the obvious value.

Both LOOP and DO& achieve package independence by using pname equality in looking for keywords.

LOOP supports destructuring; DO& does not. DO& generates automatic dummy variables when none is supplied in a variable specification; LOOP does not.

LOOP does more code optimization than DO& does.

DO& has many other features that are described in detail in DO&DOC.


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